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Paul Gotsis - Soccer Conditioning Specialist

Κυριακή, 3 Ιουνίου 2018

HIIT (High Intensity Intermittent Training in Soccer )

HIT Training in High Intensity 

As part of the training methodology applied to football, in recent years we hear more and more talk about high intensity training. This type of training is known in the literature as HIT (High Intensity Training) and has important supporting scientific fundamentals (Helgerud, 2007, Iaia 2008 Thomassen, 2010, Buccheit 2013).The classifications described by the authors are different, but the one that can be considered exemplary and represented in figure 1.
Long Intervals > 45'',Short Intervals < 45'',Sprint Interval Training 20-30'',R.S.A < 10"

Beyond the theoretical classifications, for teaching purposes, to program a HIT training it is necessary to manipulate nine variables (Buccheit, 2013), for which the six indicated in figure 2 are relevant for practical purposes.
a.Repetition duration b.Repetitions Intensity c.Recovery duration d.Recovery methods e.Number of Repetitions f.Number of Series 

1.Long Intervals 
Repetition duration: Must allow to reach the VO2max .It is recommended a duration of more than 2-3 '.
Intensity :90-95%fcmax or 90%VAM.
Recovery method :Active or Passive
Recovery duration:Greater than or equal to 3 'between repetitions
Number of Repetitions :The minimum to obtain an improvement and 4 repetitions in the case of a 4' work duration, while a greater number of repetitions occurs if the duration is shorter.
Number of Series :This type of work, providing long intervals and active recovery, allows to carry out only one series (or 2 if the duration is less than 4 minutes) to obtain positive effects.
Practical Example :4x4'min ( or 4x1000m) .This work involves several physiological parameters, in particular the VO2max. By following and monitoring the parameters described, physiological responses and performance improvements can be obtained independently if such a proposal is carried out dry or with a ball, especially in young players.(Impellizzeri ,2006 Hill-Haas ,2009)

2.Short intervals 

Repetition duration: 10''-45''
Intensity :100-140% VAM The use of percentage values of the fc max in case of short intervals (above all equal to or less than 30 '') and less reliable because it does not follow the actual intensity of the training .(Billat ,2001 Laursen ,2002)
Recovery method :It can be active or passive. This last, with a fixed and intense interval, increases the lactic acid contribution. The former, on the other hand, maximizes the time spent at the Vo2max and consequently has a greater effectiveness in looking for adaptations to the aerobic system. in the use of the classic intermittent 10''-10'',15''-15'',30''-30'' only in this last active recovery increases the time spent on VO2max.
Recovery duration:Between repetitions it is equal to the duration of the interval to keep the performance fairly constant, or less than this to increase the total intensity of the exercise and "accumulate fatigue" (which is convenient to create physiological adaptations in the recovery phase of the following days). Between the series it is appropriate a recovery of 4-5 'active or of a shorter duration if passive.
Number of Repetitions/Series  :is indicated what allows the right volume of training suggested by the evidence for team sports such as football, or 5-7 'of effective work.
Practical Example : 2 Serie 20 repetitions 20''-20''

3.Sprint Interval Training 

Repetition duration: Between 20-30''
Intensity :all -out, or at the highest possible speed in each interval.
Recovery method : Passive to maintain constant the performance of sprint
Recovery duration:Greater than or equal to three times the duration of the sprint (always manage it based on the acute and chronic physiological response sought)
Number of Repetitions/Series  :8-12
Number of Series :A single series given very high intensity is enough in this type of intervention. A valid alternative could be to use the fail method or to carry out repeated sprints until it significantly decreases the intensity for 2 consecutive sprints (for example, if you can no longer cover a certain distance), all repeated for 2-3 series, interspersed with an active recovery (at a very mild pace) of 3-4 minutes depending on the performance level of the athletes, or of a shorter duration if passive.
Practical Example : It could be the execution of 8 repetitions of 30 '' all out with a passive recovery of 90 '' Or with the fail method, one could propose 2 series of 20 '' all out with a passive recovery of 2 'between the repetitions and 2-3 'between the series.

4.Repetead Sprint Training

Repetition duration: 3-10''
Intensity : all -out 
Recovery method :Active or passive based on the physiological response sought and the objectives of the training (in the same way as explained for the other types).
Recovery duration:Between the repetitions 20-60''bearing in mind that less recovery results in more time spent on the VO2max. Between the series and fundamental a large recovery, of 3-4 'if passive or up to 6 if it is active at low intensity
Number of Repetitions/Series  : Greater than or equal to 6
Number of Series : 2-3
Practical Example : 3 Set x10 (5'') all out with change direction 90*with passive rest 25'' between repetitions 3-4'min between set.

The parameters to be considered

  • Increasing intensity (mainly for short intervals)
  • Decreasing recovery time at fixed work interval
  • Taking advantage of a passive recovery, especially in the all-out intensity

In conclusion, it can be said that high intensity training is the present and future of the methodology in football. In fact, several studies have shown that physiological adaptations and performance improvements (especially number and frequency of high intensity actions in the race) are relevant and influence discrimination between players.(Iaia ,2009 )

Αuthor :Pasquale D'Antonio (Preparatore Atletico Professionista ) Il Nuovo Calcio -Number 305
Translate-Edit :Paul Gotsis Soccer Conditioning Specialist

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